VISUAL COMMUNICATION



open mouth grin: This is where the mouth is open, the corners of the mouth are drawn back, and the teeth are showing (Estes, 1991). This display is shown when an individual is threatened by a more dominant individual that it fears (Estes, 1991).

open mouth threat: This is where the mouth is open, the teeth are covered by the lips, and the eyes are staring forward at the receiver (Estes, 1991). This display is done to threaten a subordinate (Estes, 1991).

tense-mouth face: This is where the lips are compressed tightly and the eyes are staring at the receiver (Estes, 1991). This display occurs before or during the chasing of a subordinate and before or during copulation (Estes, 1991).

pout face: This is where the eyes are opened and the lips are pushed forward making an "O" shape (Estes, 1991). This display occur in circumstances of frustration or anxiety such as after an attack, rejection of grooming, when an infant is lost, and after detecting a strange object (Estes, 1991).

play face: This is where the eyes are open and the mouth is open but the teeth are not showing (Estes, 1991). This display occurs during play with other conspecifics (Estes, 1991).

head-tipping: This is where the head is jerked upward then backward and is accompanied by a soft bark (Estes, 1991). This is a low-intensity threat given by a dominant individual when a subordinate comes to close when the individual is feeding (Estes, 1991).

arm-raising: This is where the arm or forearm is raised with the palm towards the receiver (Estes, 1991). This is a low-intensity threat given by a dominant individual when a subordinate comes to close when the individual is feeding (Estes, 1991).

hitting away: This is where the back of the hand is motioned toward the receiver (Estes, 1991). This is a low-intensity threat given by a dominant individual when a subordinate comes to close when the individual is feeding (Estes, 1991). This also occurs when an individual is startled by an insect or a snake (Estes, 1991).

flapping: This a downward slap toward the receiver (Estes, 1991). This display occurs during interfemale aggression (Estes, 1991).

bipedal swagger: This is a side-to-side swaying while the individual is either standing or walking on two legs, and the shoulders are hunched, the hair is bristling, and the arms are held out (Estes, 1991). This occurs as a threat display between two males of near equal rank and is also seen during courtship (Estes, 1991).

quadrupedal hunch: This is where the head is bent and drawn into the shoulders while the individual is in a quadrupedal stance, and the back is rounded (Estes, 1991). This is a high-intensity threat display to an opponent who is equal or near equal, and an attack may come after this (Estes, 1991).

social presenting: This is where the individual is in a quadrupedal stance with the rump facing the receiver (Estes, 1991). This is performed by females to males and by subordinate males to more dominant males (Estes, 1991). Open mouth grin may occur by the individual as they look over their shoulder at the receiver (Estes, 1991). This is a submissive stance and occurs after an attack by the attackee (Estes, 1991).

bowing: This is where an individual is facing the receiver, standing in a quadrupedal stance with the elbows bent lower than the knees so that the head is lowered and the rump is in the air (Estes, 1991). This is done by a subordinate (especially a female) when approaching a male that has done a threat display (Estes, 1991).

bobbing: This is where the individual performs push-ups with the arms bowed (Estes, 1991). This is done by adolescent males when a high-ranking male approaches, and is accompanied by pant-grunts (Estes, 1991).

bending-away: This is where an individual leans away from another with the arms close to the body and flexed at the wrist or elbow (Estes, 1991). This is done by young individuals when an adult male passes by, and can be accompanied by soft pants (Estes, 1991).

charging display: This is where an individual is running and/or throwing objects such as branches or stones and/or pant-hooting, drumming, slapping, stamping, and screaming (Estes, 1991). This display is performed by adult males and occurs when a dominant meets another individual after a long time or done by the alpha male to keep all others subordinate to him (Estes, 1991). This display also occurs by an adult male when there is a heavy rainstorm (Estes, 1991).

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