Burton, Frances. 1995. The Multimedia Guide to the Non-human Primates. Prentice-Hall Canada Inc.
Estes, Richard Despard. 1992. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals. University of Californis Press.
Fleagle, John G. 1988. Primate Adaptation and Evolution. Academic Press.
Stewart, K.J. and Harcourt, A.H. 1987. Gorillas: Variation in Female Relationships. In Primate Societies. eds. B.B. Smuts, D.L. Cheney, R.M. Seyfart, R.W. Wrangham, and T.T. Struhsaker. University of Chicago Press.
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