Visual Communication


leg stand: This occurs when a common marmoset stands on the hindlegs and will stare in a fixed direction for a couple of seconds (Stevenson and Poole, 1976). This is a response from a submissive individual that of aggressive behavior from a more dominant individual (Stevenson and Poole, 1976). This behavior can also occur before fights between individuals and in response to a strange sound or object (Stevenson and Poole, 1976).

rampant: This is like leg stand, but fore paws are stretched out and may rest on a object (Stevenson and Poole, 1976). This is a response from a submissive individual that of aggressive behavior from a more dominant individual (Stevenson and Poole, 1976).

withdrawal gesture: The arms are fully or partially out stretched, but the body is turned away from the receiver stimulus, and the hindquarters may be raised slightly (Stevenson and Poole, 1976). This is a response from a submissive individual that of aggressive behavior from a more dominant individual (Stevenson and Poole, 1976).

cringe: This is an extreme form of withdrawal gesture, where the legs are bent and the spine becomes curved (Stevenson and Poole, 1976). This is a response from a submissive individual that of aggressive behavior from a more dominant individual (Stevenson and Poole, 1976).

relaxed face: This is the neutral facial expression of the common marmoset (Stevenson and Poole, 1976).

lip-smacking: this is when a common marmoset opens and closes its mouth rapidly. This serves to communicate an invitation to copulation as well as communicating aggression. Sometimes occurs with rhythmic tongue protrusion.

rhythmic tongue protrusion: this display occurs with lip-smacking and is used to communicate an invitation to copulation as well as aggression.

head-cock-stare: This occurs when the common marmoset moves the head from side to side and is directed at another individual, prey, or an inanimate object (Stevenson and Poole, 1976).

slit stare: This is when a common marmoset stares at a stimulus with the eye lids partially closed (Stevenson and Poole, 1976). This behavioral pattern occurs when an individual is approached by an aggressive conspecific, and the tufts of the ears may be flattened and bared teeth gecker may occur with it (Stevenson and Poole, 1976).

frown: This is where the eye brows are partially lowered and the sender stares at the stimulus (Stevenson and Poole, 1976). This behavioral pattern happens during aggression and the erh-erh vocalization may occur with it, and can be seen by an individual when approached a strange marmoset or human (Stevenson and Poole, 1976).

open mouth: This is when the mouth of the common marmoset is open, the teeth are bare, but the lips are not retracted (Stevenson and Poole, 1976). This behavioral pattern is found to occur with social play (Stevenson and Poole, 1976).

partial open mouth: This is where the center of the lips is parted so the mouth is partially opened (Stevenson and Poole, 1976). This behavior is found when an individual approaches a strange object or when approached by an aggressive conspecific (Stevenson and Poole, 1976).

partial open-mouth stare: This behavior is like partial open-mouth however the individual is staring at a fixed stimulus (Stevenson and Poole, 1976). This behavior is found when an individual approaches a strange object or when approached by an aggressive conspecific (Stevenson and Poole, 1976).

pout: This is where the mouth becomes pursed forward, and is performed by immature common marmosets (Stevenson and Poole, 1976). This behavioral pattern is elicited by the presence of a strange individual (Stevenson and Poole, 1976). This pattern is found in older juveniles and may occur with theerh-erh vocalization and an attack may proceed it (Stevenson and Poole, 1976).

grin: This is where the lips of the common marmoset are retracted and the teeth are partially visible and vocalization occurs with it (Stevenson and Poole, 1976). This behavioral pattern occurs when an individual is being approached by an aggressive vocalizing animal, and this pattern may occur with tufts flatten and slit stare (Stevenson and Poole, 1976).

bared teeth gecker: This is a variation on the grin, where a gecker is added (Stevenson and Poole, 1976). This behavioral pattern occurs when an individual is being approached by an aggressive vocalizing animal, and this pattern may occur with tufts flatten and slit stare (Stevenson and Poole, 1976).

bared teeth scream: This another variation upon the grin where the lips are more retracted, more teeth show, and a gecker or a scream may occur with it (Stevenson and Poole, 1976). This behavioral pattern occurs when an individual is being approached by an aggressive vocalizing animal, and this pattern may occur with tufts flatten and slit stare (Stevenson and Poole, 1976).

tufts flick stare: This is when a common marmoset stares at a stimulus accompanied by the back and forth movement of the tufts in the vertical plane (Stevenson and Poole, 1976). This behavioral pattern is performed with and between common marmoset groups (Stevenson and Poole, 1976). During intergroup encounters the adult male usually performs the behavior, and group members were seen performing this behavior when a novel female was introduced into the group (Stevenson and Poole, 1976). When done by an adult towards a juvenile, the juvenile responds with withdrawal gesture (Stevenson and Poole, 1976).

tufts flick slit-stare: This behavioral pattern is like tufts flick stare except the eyes lids are narrower (Stevenson and Poole, 1976). This is seen as a response to a strange marmoset or human (Stevenson and Poole, 1976).

tufts flatten: This occurs when the common marmoset flattens the tufts against the head (Stevenson and Poole, 1976). This is a response to an aggressive signal and when a juvenile approaches a novel object (Stevenson and Poole, 1976).

tufts-erect stare: This is where the common marmoset has the tufts more erect than usual and facing forward (Stevenson and Poole, 1976). The behavioral pattern may include a reddening of the face and occurs before an attack (Stevenson and Poole, 1976).

tufts-erect frown: This behavioral pattern is a variation on the tufts-erect stare that includes the components of the frown (Stevenson and Poole, 1976). The behavioral pattern may include a reddening of the face and occurs before an attack (Stevenson and Poole, 1976).

bristle: This occurs when all of the fur on the individual is erect, along with the tail being conically erect, that is the tip is only partially erect (Stevenson and Poole, 1976). This is given by an immature common marmoset when approaching a novel object or a potential predator (Stevenson and Poole, 1976).

pilo-tail: This is behavior occurs when the whole tail is piloerect (Stevenson and Poole, 1976). This is given by adults in response to approaching a novel object or a potential predator (Stevenson and Poole, 1976).

pilo-base tail: This is when only the base of the tail is erect (Stevenson and Poole, 1976). This is given by adults in response to approaching a novel object or a potential predator (Stevenson and Poole, 1976).

pilo-tip tail: This is when only the tip of the tail is piloerect (Stevenson and Poole, 1976). This is given by adults in response to approaching a novel object or a potential predator (Stevenson and Poole, 1976).

semi-pilo tail: This is when the tail is only semi-piloerect (Stevenson and Poole, 1976). This is given by adults in response to approaching a novel object or a potential predator (Stevenson and Poole, 1976).

tail raise present: This is when the tail is semi-pilo erect and also coiled and raised (Stevenson and Poole, 1976).

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