Tonkean Macaque (Macaca tonkeana)
This species has cheek pouches to carry food in while it forages. This species has a sagittal crest.
The tonkean macaque is found on the islands of Sulawesi which is part of the country of Indonesia. This species is found in the rainforests at moderate elevations.
The tonkean macaque is a frugivorous species, but immature leaves, arthropods, stalks of newly flowering plants, and cultivated crops are also consumed. Generally this species raids crops for fruits, vegetables, and maize. This is a diurnal species.
The tonkean macaque is a quadrupedal species (Fleagle, 1988).
The tonkean macaque has a multimale-multifemale social system. Females remain in their natal group with the onset of maturity, but males will disperse shortly before adolescence. There is a hierarchical system amongst group members based upon the matriline.
scream calls: This call is given by the tonkean macaque when they are approached by a non-group conspecific.
fear grimace: The lips are retracted so that the teeth are shown; the teeth are clenched together (Estes, 1991). This display functions as an appeasement signal to reduce aggression in aggressive encounters (Estes, 1991).
staring with open mouth: This is the stare accompanied by the mouth being open but the teeth are covered (Estes, 1991). This is a threat expression (Estes, 1991).
lipsmacking: This is when the lips are protruded, then smacked together repeatedly. For the tonkean macaque this display communicates aggression.
The tonkean macaque gives birth to a single offspring.
Burton, Frances. 1995. The Multimedia Guide to the Non-human Primates. Prentice-Hall Canada Inc.
Estes, R.D. 1991. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals. University of California Press.
Fleagle, John G. 1988. Primate Adaptation and Evolution. Academic Press.
Last Updated: October 9, 2003.
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