VISUAL COMMUNICATION


defense threat: This is where the mouth is open, the lips are covering the teeth, the eyes are open, and the ears are spread back (Glatston, 1979). When the threatening stimulus comes closer the eyes begin to become more narrow and the ears take on the back and folded position (Glatston, 1979).

defensive attack: This behavior usually follows defensive threat (Glatston, 1979). When a threatening stimulus would approach the individual gives threat calls and rears up on the hind legs while clenching the fists (Glatston, 1979). The mouth is open, the teeth bared, and the ears are in the back and folded position right before an individual will bite the threatening source (Glatston, 1979).

swaying posture: In this display the body is held low against the substrate with the front half of the body swaying from side to side (Glatston, 1979). Occasionally the head is turned side to side during this display (Glatston, 1979). This display is seen when an individual is presented with a novel object (Glatston, 1979).

cringing body posture: This display is only performed by the male and this is where the male would be in hunched position, sitting down, with the ears in the back and folded position and the eyes partially closed (Glatston, 1979). This is seen by males when introduced to non-estrus females and seems to function in inhibiting aggression from the female (Glatston, 1979).

tail-lashing: This is when the tail is vigorously moved up and down (Glatston, 1979). This behavior is seen during mating by the male as he approaches the female to mount her (Glatston, 1979). This display is also seen by immature females when they would approach a male (Glatston, 1979).

spread ears: This is when the ears are fully extended being parallel to the vertical plane of the face (Glatston, 1979). This behavior is seen during confident approaches, attacks, and chases (Glatston, 1979).

horned ears: This is where the ears are facing to the side at an angle to the respect of the vertical plane of the face ranging to the perpendicular to the vertical plane of the face (Glatston, 1979). This behavior is seen in situations of geat caution or uncertainty, for example during female-female introductions, male-female fights following introduction, and during threat calls (Glatston, 1979). This behavior is also seen when the male will investigate the scent mark of a female, and the corners of the mouth are pulled back during this situation (Glatston, 1979). The more alarmed an individual is the more erect the ears become (Glatston, 1979).

back and folded position: This is when the ears are folded back against skull (Glatston, 1979). This behavior occurs during times of great alarm and fear (Glatston, 1979). A male will perform this when persistently threatened by a female and this behavior is often associated with cringing body posture, defensive threat, and defensive attack (Glatston, 1979). A female who is subordinate will perform this sniffed by a more superior female (Glatston, 1979). This ear position is also seen when an individual is taking insect prey (Glatston, 1979).

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Last Updated: October 9, 2003.
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