Formosan Rock Macaque (Macaca cyclopis)

This species has cheek pouches to carry food in while it forages. The pelage is dark gray to brown in color. The tail is medium length.

This species is found on the island of Taiwan. This species prefers the mountainous terrain of Northeastern and Southwestern parts of the island; the Formosan rock macaque also likes to live in areas near the sea.

The Formosan rock macaque consumes fruits, leaves, berries, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. This is a diurnal species. Group sizes range from 2 to 10 individuals, although this because of a drop in numbers in recent years, group sizes did reach 45 individuals about 20 years ago.

The Formosan rock macaque is a quadrupedal species (Fleagle, 1988).

The Formosan rock macaque has a multimale-multifemale social system, although now because of the recent drop in numbers, group structure resembles that of a unimale system. Females remain in their natal group with the onset of maturity, but males will disperse shortly before adolescence. There is a hierarchical system amongst group members based upon the matriline.

scream calls: This call is given by the Formosan rock macaque when they approached by a non-group conspecific.

gu call : This call functions as a contact call for the Formosan rock macaque, which keeps the group together. Group members answer this call with a sound that sounds like "kyaw-kyaw".


fear grimace: The lips are retracted so that the teeth are shown; the teeth are clenched together (Estes, 1991). This display functions as an appeasement signal to reduce aggression in aggressive encounters (Estes, 1991).

staring with open mouth: This is the stare accompanied by the mouth being open but the teeth are covered (Estes, 1991). This is a threat expression (Estes, 1991).


The Formosan rock macaque gives birth to a single offspring. During estrus the perineum of the female swells at the base of the tail, and there is also swelling along the thighs.

Burton, Frances. 1995. The Multimedia Guide to the Non-human Primates. Prentice-Hall Canada Inc.

Estes, R.D. 1991. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals. University of California Press.

Fleagle, John G. 1988. Primate Adaptation and Evolution. Academic Press.

Last Updated: October 9, 2003.
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